An ancient Canyon Oak in the North Fork Mattole River Watershed.
Hardwood species are generally considered worthless by the Pacific Lumber Company and are often cut and left behind or burned. Another way PL kills hardwood trees is herbicide. This giant madrone has taken over a year to die after it was poisoned by PL. The company used the "hack and squirt" method, holes are chopped around the trunk of the tree and herbicide is sprayed into the holes.
PL uses herbicides to kill large swaths of hardwood trees and then replants a mono-crop of Redwood clones or Douglas Fir seedlings. Herbicide use is largely unregulated on timber land and may be sprayed without any public notice. The deadly chemicals are sometimes mixed with diesel fuel to help them stick to foliage.
[photos courtesy of Mattole Wildlands Defense.]